Schur {Matrix}R Documentation

Schur Decomposition of a Matrix


Computes the Schur decomposition and eigenvalues of a square matrix; see the BACKGROUND information below.


Schur(x, vectors, ...)



numeric square Matrix (inheriting from class "Matrix") or traditional matrix. Missing values (NAs) are not allowed.


logical. When TRUE (the default), the Schur vectors are computed, and the result is a proper MatrixFactorization of class Schur.


further arguments passed to or from other methods.


Based on the Lapack subroutine dgees.


If vectors are TRUE, as per default: If x is a Matrix an object of class Schur, otherwise, for a traditional matrix x, a list with components T, Q, and EValues.

If vectors are FALSE, a list with components


the upper quasi-triangular (square) matrix of the Schur decomposition.


the vector of numeric or complex eigen values of T or A.


If A is a square matrix, then A = Q T t(Q), where Q is orthogonal, and T is upper block-triangular (nearly triangular with either 1 by 1 or 2 by 2 blocks on the diagonal) where the 2 by 2 blocks correspond to (non-real) complex eigenvalues. The eigenvalues of A are the same as those of T, which are easy to compute. The Schur form is used most often for computing non-symmetric eigenvalue decompositions, and for computing functions of matrices such as matrix exponentials.


Anderson, E., et al. (1994). LAPACK User's Guide, 2nd edition, SIAM, Philadelphia.


Schur(Hilbert(9))              # Schur factorization (real eigenvalues)

(A <- Matrix(round(rnorm(5*5, sd = 100)), nrow = 5))
(Sch.A <- Schur(A))

eTA <- eigen(Sch.A@T)
str(SchA <- Schur(A, vectors=FALSE))# no 'T' ==> simple list
stopifnot(all.equal(eTA$values, eigen(A)$values, tolerance = 1e-13),
                    local({z <- Sch.A@EValues
                           z[order(Mod(z), decreasing=TRUE)]}), tolerance = 1e-13),
          identical(SchA$T, Sch.A@T),
          identical(SchA$EValues, Sch.A@EValues))

## For the faint of heart, we provide Schur() also for traditional matrices:

a.m <- function(M) unname(as(M, "matrix"))
a <- a.m(A)
Sch.a <- Schur(a)
stopifnot(identical(Sch.a, list(Q = a.m(Sch.A @ Q),
				T = a.m(Sch.A @ T),
				EValues = Sch.A@EValues)),
	  all.equal(a, with(Sch.a, Q %*% T %*% t(Q)))

[Package Matrix version 1.2-17 Index]