cBind {Matrix}R Documentation

Versions of 'cbind' and 'rbind' recursively built on cbind2/rbind2


The base functions cbind and rbind are defined for an arbitrary number of arguments and hence have the first formal argument .... For that reason, in the past S4 methods could easily be defined for binding together matrices inheriting from Matrix.

For that reason, cbind2 and rbind2 have been provided for binding together two matrices, and we have defined methods for these and the 'Matrix'-matrices.

Before R version 3.2.0 (April 2015), we have needed a substitute for S4-enabled versions of cbind and rbind, and provided cBind and rBind with identical syntax and semantic in order to bind together multiple matrices ("matrix" or "Matrix" and vectors. With R version 3.2.0 and newer, cBind and rBind are deprecated and produce a deprecation warning (via .Deprecated), and your code should start using cbind() and rbind() instead.


cBind(..., deparse.level = 1)
rBind(..., deparse.level = 1)



matrix-like R objects to be bound together, see cbind and rbind.


integer determining under which circumstances column and row names are built from the actual arguments' ‘expression’, see cbind.


The implementation of these is recursive, calling cbind2 or rbind2 respectively, where these have methods defined and so should dispatch appropriately.


typically a ‘matrix-like’ object of a similar class as the first argument in ....

Note that sometimes by default, the result is a sparseMatrix if one of the arguments is (even in the case where this is not efficient). In other cases, the result is chosen to be sparse when there are more zero entries is than non-zero ones (as the default sparse in Matrix()).


Martin Maechler

See Also

cbind2, cbind, Documentation in base R's methods package .


(a <- matrix(c(2:1,1:2), 2,2))
D <- Diagonal(2)
if(getRversion() < "3.2.0") {
 M1 <- cbind(0, rBind(a, 7))
 print(M1) # remains traditional matrix

 M2 <- cBind(4, a, D, -1, D, 0) # a sparse Matrix

} else { ## newer versions of R do not need cBind / rBind:

 M1 <- cbind(0, suppressWarnings(rBind(a, 7)))
 print(M1) # remains traditional matrix

 M2 <- suppressWarnings(cBind(4, a, D, -1, D, 0)) # a sparse Matrix

 stopifnot(identical(M1, cbind(0, rbind(a, 7))),
           identical(M2, cbind(4, a, D, -1, D, 0)))
}# R >= 3.2.0

[Package Matrix version 1.2-17 Index]