ldTweedie {mgcv} R Documentation

## Log Tweedie density evaluation

### Description

A function to evaluate the log of the Tweedie density for variance powers between 1 and 2, inclusive. Also evaluates first and second derivatives of log density w.r.t. its scale parameter, `phi`, and `p`, or w.r.t. `rho=log(phi)` and `theta` where `p = (a+b*exp(theta))/(1+exp(theta))`.

### Usage

```ldTweedie(y,mu=y,p=1.5,phi=1,rho=NA,theta=NA,a=1.001,b=1.999,all.derivs=FALSE)
```

### Arguments

 `y` values at which to evaluate density. `mu` corresponding means (either of same length as `y` or a single value). `p` the variance of `y` is proportional to its mean to the power `p`. `p` must be between 1 and 2. 1 is Poisson like (exactly Poisson if `phi=1`), 2 is gamma. `phi` The scale parameter. Variance of `y` is `phi*mu^p`. `rho` optional log scale parameter. Over-rides `phi` if `theta` also supplied. `theta` parameter such that `p = (a+b*exp(theta))/(1+exp(theta))`. Over-rides `p` if `rho` also supplied. `a` lower limit parameter (>1) used in definition of `p` from `theta`. `b` upper limit parameter (<2) used in definition of `p` from `theta`. `all.derivs` if `TRUE` then derivatives w.r.t. `mu` are also returned. Only available with `rho` and `phi` parameterization.

### Details

A Tweedie random variable with 1<p<2 is a sum of `N` gamma random variables where `N` has a Poisson distribution. The p=1 case is a generalization of a Poisson distribution and is a discrete distribution supported on integer multiples of the scale parameter. For 1<p<2 the distribution is supported on the positive reals with a point mass at zero. p=2 is a gamma distribution. As p gets very close to 1 the continuous distribution begins to converge on the discretely supported limit at p=1.

`ldTweedie` is based on the series evaluation method of Dunn and Smyth (2005). Without the restriction on `p` the calculation of Tweedie densities is less straightforward. If you really need this case then the `tweedie` package is the place to start.

The `rho`, `theta` parameterization is useful for optimization of `p` and `phi`, in order to keep `p` bounded well away from 1 and 2, and `phi` positive. The derivatives near `p=1` tend to infinity.

Note that if `p` and `phi` (or `theta` and `rho`) both contain only a single unique value, then the underlying code is able to use buffering to avoid repeated calls to expensive log gamma, di-gamma and tri-gamma functions (`mu` can still be a vector of different values). This is much faster than is possible when these parameters are vectors with different values.

### Value

A matrix with 6 columns, or 10 if `all.derivs=TRUE`. The first is the log density of `y` (log probability if `p=1`). The second and third are the first and second derivatives of the log density w.r.t. `phi`. 4th and 5th columns are first and second derivative w.r.t. `p`, final column is second derivative w.r.t. `phi` and `p`.

If `rho` and `theta` were supplied then derivatives are w.r.t. these. In this case, and if `all.derivs=TRUE` then the 7th colmn is the derivative w.r.t. `mu`, the 8th is the 2nd derivative w.r.t. `mu`, the 9th is the mixed derivative w.r.t. `theta` and`mu` and the 10th is the mixed derivative w.r.t. `rho` and `mu`.

### Author(s)

Simon N. Wood simon.wood@r-project.org

### References

Dunn, P.K. and G.K. Smith (2005) Series evaluation of Tweedie exponential dispersion model densities. Statistics and Computing 15:267-280

Tweedie, M. C. K. (1984). An index which distinguishes between some important exponential families. Statistics: Applications and New Directions. Proceedings of the Indian Statistical Institute Golden Jubilee International Conference (Eds. J. K. Ghosh and J. Roy), pp. 579-604. Calcutta: Indian Statistical Institute.

### Examples

```  library(mgcv)
## convergence to Poisson illustrated
## notice how p>1.1 is OK
y <- seq(1e-10,10,length=1000)
p <- c(1.0001,1.001,1.01,1.1,1.2,1.5,1.8,2)
phi <- .5
fy <- exp(ldTweedie(y,mu=2,p=p[1],phi=phi)[,1])
plot(y,fy,type="l",ylim=c(0,3),main="Tweedie density as p changes")
for (i in 2:length(p)) {
fy <- exp(ldTweedie(y,mu=2,p=p[i],phi=phi)[,1])
lines(y,fy,col=i)
}

```

[Package mgcv version 1.8-28 Index]